Thoracic surgery department is a specialty of medicine that diagnoses and treats other organs except the breast and heart, which start with the throat and reach the upper part of the abdomen. The work areas of the thoracic surgery specialist are diseases of the trachea, esophagus, mediastinum, lung and chest wall and related areas. Diagnosis, treatment and surgical interventions of the diseases of these regions are performed by thoracic surgeons. Other organs other than the heart and breast and diseases related to these organs are followed and treated by thoracic surgeons.
Which Diseases Does Thoracic Surgery Look At?
There are many diseases that fall into the field of thoracic surgery. There are many congenital or functional thoracic surgery diseases of the organs surrounding it, especially the lung. Some of those;
- Lung cancers
- Chest wall cancers
- Trachea tumors
- Accumulation of water in the lungs
- Pleurisy infections
- Lung perforation
- Mediastinum tumors
- Esophagus diseases
- Pulmonary tuberculosis
- Lung fungi
- Chronic lung diseases (COPD)
- Thoracic (rib cage) traumas
- Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)
- Congenital chest diseases can be counted
Chest surgery diagnosis and treatment methods are varied. Especially with the development of technology, these have diversified and developed. Correct diagnosis is important for the treatment of diseases of organs such as the chest, lung, trachea and esophagus in the thoracic surgery area. For diagnosis, many tests and examinations are applied. For the diagnosis of this department’s diseases, diseases are diagnosed using methods that will help diagnosis such as blood and urine tests, imaging procedures (MRI, ultrasound, lung film, tomography), biopsy. As a result of these analyzes and examinations, the treatment and surgical methods to be performed are evaluated. In the thoracic surgery department, surgical methods are generally used in addition to medical treatment. These are surgical treatment procedures for the relevant organ of the disease. Most of the surgeries are performed using robotic and minimally invasive surgical techniques. Some of these surgical procedures are;
- Lung surgeries
- Trachea surgeries
- Esophagus surgeries
- Mediastinum surgeries
- Lung volume reduction surgeries.
- Tracheal stent applications.
- VATS (Video thoracoscopy) methods
- Rib cage surgeries.
Apart from these, various surgical procedures can be applied depending on the patient’s condition.
Removal of tumor cells in the lung, trachea, esophagus, mediastinum, treatment with stent application for esophageal strictures, treatment with NUSS technique for chest cage problems caused by congenital or post-trauma, treatment by removing the infected lung surface in pulmonary tuberculosis, in emphysema patients volume reduction surgeries, treatment of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating) diseases with EPS method, lung puncture surgeries and emergency thoracic injuries interventions are performed.
Numerous techniques are used for diagnosis and treatment in thoracic surgery:
Bronchoscopy: It is performed as flexible bronchoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and tumors in the bronchial system and trachea.
Medianoscopy: It is performed for the diagnosis of tumors in the lungs and lymph nodes and for the staging of the tumors.
Thoracotomy: Opening the rib cage.
Lobectomy: Removing part of the disease area
Pneumonectomy: One side is the removal of the lung for tumor clearance.
Most of the operations performed in the field of thoracic surgery are now performed with closed surgery technique. Open surgeries are less preferred now. Open surgeries with the VATS (Video thoracoscopic) method have left their place to these video-assisted surgeries. Thanks to these methods, there have been many advantages such as shortening the recovery time of the patients, fewer incisions, and earlier discharge.
The health of the lungs, one of the most important organs of our body, is of vital importance. Lung cancers are at the top of all cancer cases among the cancer cases that have increased especially in recent years. Early diagnosis is the most important factor directly affecting the chances of treatment in lung cancers. The chance of treatment in these cancers diagnosed on time has brought positive improvements thanks to the developing drugs and technologies. Although this is a genetic predisposition factor in the increase in lung and pulmonary pleural cancer cases, the biggest reason is the excessive smoking. Most of the patients in the chest diseases department, which is one of the most intense polyclinics of hospitals in our country, consist of patients with chronic lung failure due to smoking and smoking. Regardless of the reason for the protection of lung health, it should not be neglected to eliminate these causes and to perform controls from chest diseases departments at certain periods for early diagnosis of possible lung diseases.