Pediatric Hematology department works in cooperation with medical departments such as Pediatric Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology.
HEMATOLOGICAL DISEASES IN CHILDREN
- Nutritional anemias
Anemia is the name given to the disease, which is known as anemia among the people, and the red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues are not sufficient. Nutritional anemias that develop due to iron and vitamin B12 deficiencies are the most common types of anemia in the world. In addition to these, nutritional anemias can be seen in zinc, copper, and folic acid deficiencies. Symptoms of nutritional anemias include persistent fatigue, weight loss, pale skin, irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, weakness in keratin tissues such as hair and nails, cold hands and feet, headaches and dizziness, irritable mood, cracks and sores in the lips and mouth edges. countable. Diagnosis of nutritional anemias is made by blood tests. The type and cause of anemia are determined and an appropriate treatment method is applied. In the treatment, supplements containing minerals and components such as iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, which are usually lacking in blood tests, and appropriate diet programs are applied.
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which is the most common type of cancer in childhood, is a type of blood and bone marrow cancer. Symptoms of the disease include bruising and bleeding that occur easily in the body, high fever, weakness, weight loss and loss of appetite, the appearance of subcutaneous blood deposits called petechiae, and pain in the bones. In addition to these, painless swelling in the neck, armpits and groin, and the feeling of swelling and pain in the spleen area below the ribs are among the important symptoms. A series of blood tests and bone marrow biopsies are required to diagnose the disease and determine its type. Treatment methods such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and stem cell transplantation are used in the treatment of the disease.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
Acute myeloid leukemia, popularly known as blood cancer, is a type of bone marrow cancer. Symptoms of the disease include fever, breathing problems, bruising and bleeding in the body, petechiae, weakness and unexplained weight loss. Diagnosis and determination of the type of the disease is possible with blood and bone marrow tests. Chemotherapy, stem cell transplants and drug treatments are applied for the treatment of the disease.
- Aplastic anemia
Thalassemia (Mediterranean anemia)
Hemophilia, which is a genetically transmitted blood disease due to coagulation factor deficiency, is also called a bleeding disorder. Although the disease is generally seen in men, hemophilia may be encountered in women, albeit rarely. In some cases, symptoms occur immediately after birth, but in patients with mild hemophilia, the disease can be understood at later ages. Bleeding, especially in the joints and longer bleeding times than normal, without any factor, are important symptoms of the disease. As intra-articular bleeding will cause pain and swelling, it may cause limitation of movement. Various laboratory tests are
used in the diagnosis of the disease. Hemophilia is a life-long disease, and bleeding control drugs and preventive methods are used for its treatment.
PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY TREATMENT METHODS
In Pediatric Hematology clinics, the disease is diagnosed after the patients are examined and the necessary tests are made, and the necessary treatments are arranged. Some of the treatment methods used in Pediatric Hematology clinics are as follows;
Chemotherapy, which is used especially in cancer treatments, is an intensive drug therapy, which can also be called cytotoxic therapy. It is carried out by the intensive application of drugs that affect cancer cells and prevent the growth and proliferation of these cells. The content and duration of chemotherapy are determined according to the type and course of the disease. It is extremely important to create sterile conditions in patients receiving chemotherapy due to the weakening of the immune system. Daily chemotherapy infusions and blood transfusions, in other words blood transfusions, are performed in the outpatient chemotherapy room in the Pediatric Hematology clinic. Chemotherapies are prepared in sterile conditions in HEPA filtered chemotherapy preparation cabinets by experienced chemotherapy nurses and patient safety is prioritized.
In radiotherapy treatment, also called radiation therapy, high-dose radiation applications are used to prevent the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. This treatment method, which is applied by expert radiation oncologists, is especially used in the treatment of tumors accompanying lymph involvement and blood diseases.
- Bone marrow (stem cell) transplant
The main problem in some hematology diseases, especially leukemias, is the impaired normal blood cell formation. The main purpose of bone marrow transplants is to restore normal blood cell formation by giving the stem cells taken from the bone marrow of healthy individuals to the patient. It is important to find a donor that provides tissue compatibility in bone marrow transplants. These donors may be close relatives such as siblings with full matching tissue groups (HLA) or unrelated donors with whom tissue matching is achieved. Sometimes, healthy stem cells obtained from the patient’s own blood or stem cells obtained from the cord blood taken from a newborn tissue-compatible sibling can also be used for treatment purposes. In addition, the patient’s immune system is suppressed to accept new cells in the preparation stage before the bone marrow transplant, and it is very important that the patient is in a sterile environment during this period.