What is Gastroenterology?

What are the Working Areas of the Gastroenterology Department?

Gastroenterology examines diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon) and anus region, liver diseases, gall bladder and tract diseases, pancreatic diseases and abdominal wall diseases, that is, diseases of all organs except the kidneys from the abdominal organs. and the science of diagnosis and treatment.


The fields in which gastroenterology specialists work are quite wide and divided into two main topics. First; Gastrointestinal tract are diseases of the esophagus (esophagus), stomach, small intestines, large intestines (colon) and anus region (anus). The second is; Liver and biliary tract (hepatobiliary system) diseases. If we will briefly state according to the prevalence of the diseases of these two systems;


Esophageal (esophageal) diseases: Reflux disease, especially esophageal cancers, polyps, diverticula, all kinds of foreign objects that have escaped into the esophagus, and injuries caused by harmful drinks such as harmful bleach, fat solvent, etc. All kinds of bleeding and diseases caused by foreign bodies are diagnosed and treated by gastroenterology specialists.


It includes the diagnosis and treatment of gastritis, benign ulcer or malignant stomach cancers, stomach polyps and bleeding from all kinds of stomach (Helicobacter pylorine and especially rheumatic drugs). It also creates the removal of piercing and stinging foreign bodies that have escaped into the stomach.

The 12-finger intestine (duodenum) is the first part of the small intestines and is the part that connects to the stomach with a ring that we call the pyloric ring. Bleeding due to duodenal ulcers and ulcers, strictures due to bad ulcer healing caused by stenosis of this region and anemia, which we call celiac disease, diagnosis and treatment of diseases that cause growth retardation, diarrhea and weight loss in children, also include the areas of expertise of gastroenterologists.

In addition, the papilla vateri, which is the point where the bile synthesized in the liver flows into the 12-finger intestine, is in this region, and the diagnosis of papilla vateri stenosis, cancers, bile duct stones, bile duct cancers and pancreatic diseases and cancers as adjacent organs and the treatment of patients who have lost the chance of surgery are also located in this region. It is done by experts.

Diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as Crohn’s disease and tuberculosis, which involve the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon, which are the most common areas of involvement, are also performed by gastroenterologists.


Spastic colon, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, removal of diverticula, polyps and polyps, intervention to bleeding from the colon and diagnosis of colon cancers are successfully treated by gastroenterology specialists (except those that require surgery).


It includes the treatment of diseases such as hemorrhoids, fissures by diagnosing hemorrhoids, hemorrhoid-related bleeding, anal fissure, anal fistula and rectal cancers.


Liver diseases occupy an important place in the work areas of gastroenterologists. Acute or chronic hepatitis causes: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, chronic hepatitis including vaccine protection (hepatitis A and B) caused by many causes such as alcohol and drugs, liver cirrhosis caused by liver cirrhosis Diagnosis and treatment of bleeding, fluid collected in the abdominal membrane (ascites), kidney failure caused by cirrhosis, liver cancer after cirrhosis and liver coma are performed by gastroenterologists.


Diagnosis of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct diseases, gallbladder and bile duct stones and cancers, as well as palliative treatments such as removal of bile duct stones and stent placement of bile duct cancers that have lost the chance of surgery, are important areas of work for gastroenterologists.


Gastroenterologists perform important work in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cysts and cancers, and stent placement and evacuation of cysts in inoperable patients.


Today, advanced biochemical examinations, radiological examinations (such as various films, ultrasonography, tomography and MRI) are used. Especially for the diagnosis of esophagus, stomach and duodenal diseases, the diagnosis is made by talking to the patient and by performing endoscopy (gastroscopy) after the examination. In the diagnosis and treatment of stones and cancers of the bile ducts, it is diagnosed and treated with a special endoscopy device called side-view duodenoscopy. Among colon and rectal diseases, diverticulum diagnosis, polyp diagnosis and removal, cancer diagnosis and interventions for bleeding are performed with an endoscope that can be bent in the intestines called colonoscopy.

These procedures can be performed by locally numbing the throat to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, as well as gastroscopy, ERCP and colonoscopy, while the patient is fully anesthetized and the patient does not remember anything. In addition, a very special device called endoscopic ultrasonography, which combines endoscopy and ultrasonography, is diagnosed and treated.