Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases

The Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases deals with the diseases of the endocrine organs known as the endocrine glands responsible for the production and secretion of hormones. In addition, metabolic disorders including fat, protein and carbohydrate production / consumption in our body are also within the scope of the department. Endocrinologists working in this department serve by considering the latest developments in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the endocrine system. One of the peculiar features of this section is that the level of hormones is measured by performing various stimulating or suppressive tests (dynamic tests) during the diagnosis of diseases. These operations are mostly step operations. Sometimes tests can take a long time to complete. Diagnosis procedures are mostly performed in outpatient clinics, but also under observation and hospitalization when necessary.

Diagnosed and Treated Diseases

  1. Diabetes Mellitus (diabetes)
  2. Obesity (overweight)
  3. Metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, gout
  4. Thyroid diseases (Goiter, Thyroid nodules, Thyroid function disorders, Thyroid cancers)
  5. Parathyroid diseases (diseases of the endocrine gland that regulates calcium)
  6. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis (bone loss)
  7. Pituitary gland diseases
  8. Adrenal (adrenal gland) diseases,
  9. Reproductive disorders caused by hormones
  10. Adult sexual development disorders
  11. Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Clinic looks at the excess or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or tumoral diseases.

 Other diseases and conditions treated are listed below, in alphabetical order:

  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Adrenal mass
  • Amenorrhea
  • Anorexia
  • Acromegaly
  • Bariatric surgery
  • Growth hormone deficiency
  • Cushing Syndrome
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Goiter
  • Graves’ disease
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hashimoto’s disease
  • Pituitary insufficiency
  • Pituitary Adenomas
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hirsutismus
  • Gynecomastia
  • Klinefelter Syndrome
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Osteoporosis
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Prediabetes
  • Primary Aldosteronism
  • Thyroid Nodules
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Turner Syndrome

Specialized Treatments

Ultrasonographic evaluation (Evaluation of thyroid and neck lymph nodes by ultrasonography): It is a non-invasive imaging method that we frequently use in the evaluation of thyroid diseases. By performing ultrasonography (USG), both the problems related to the thyroid gland are evaluated and when the nodule is detected in the thyroid, the decision is made whether it is necessary to evaluate the biopsy according to the ultrasound characteristics of the nodule. Thyroid nodules are quite common in the community. While the rate of detecting thyroid nodules by examination alone is 5%, it is known that it is up to 50% when viewed by USG. In other words, thyroid USG is an examination that must be done for nodule detection and evaluation.

Further evaluation is also required in patients with malignant ultrasound features of thyroid nodules or malignant lymph nodes in the neck. Detection of malignant lymph nodes before the first surgery, especially in patients with malignant thyroid nodules, will cause a change in the type of surgery and lymph node dissection. Again, in patients who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer and are under follow-up, the most frequent recurrences are caused by lymph nodes. Ultrasound evaluation of lymph nodes is also performed in our hospitals. The first thing to do in distinguishing benign malignant nodule and lymph node is USG followed by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).

Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (thyroid nodule, fine needle aspiration biopsy from lymph nodes): FNAB procedure is applied to nodules or nodules according to the ultrasound features. FNAB procedure is a convenient, cheap and reliable method used to investigate whether nodules detected by USG are malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a procedure that can be easily applied in outpatient clinic conditions, without the need for any medication or local anesthetic agent. The ideal procedure is to be performed with USG. In our clinic, the procedure is performed using USG.

Calcitonin and thyroglobulin washing from lymph nodes or thyroid nodules with ultrasound guidance: In most thyroid cancers, the spread is to the neck lymph nodes. It is important in the evaluation of thyroid nodules or lymph nodes for malignancy. Washing procedures may also be required in cases where cytological examination with FNAB is insufficient for diagnosis. Detection of metastatic lymph nodes reaches 100% when washing with cytology. In our hospitals, thyroglobulin and calcitonin washing procedures are performed on both thyroid nodules and lymph nodes.

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