Bone Marrow Transplantation

Pediatric & Adult

A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that implants stem cells to make healthy blood in the body to replace damaged or diseased bone marrow. In some cases where the bone marrow does not work or cannot produce enough healthy blood cells, a bone marrow transplant is required. there are two types of Bone marrow transplants, autologous and allogeneic. Transplants using cells from the human body are called autologous transplants, and transplants from a donor are called allogeneic transplants.

Autologous Stem Cell Transplant

Autologous stem cell transplant uses healthy blood stem cells in the body to replace the diseased or damaged bone marrow. During stem cell transplantation, using cells from one’s own body has some advantages over using stem cells from another person. For example; In autologous stem cell transplants, there is no incompatibility problem between the transplanted cells and the body’s own cells.

Autologous bone marrow transplantation may only be an option if the body is producing enough healthy bone marrow cells. These cells can be collected, frozen, and stored for later use. Autologous stem cell transplants are often used in people who need high doses of chemotherapy and radiation. Autologous stem cell transplantation helps replace damaged bone marrow.

Autologous stem cell transplant is mostly used to treat the following conditions:

  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Myeloma
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Plasma cell disorders

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant

Allogeneic stem cell transplant uses healthy “blood stem cells” from a donor to replace diseased or damaged bone marrow. Allogeneic stem cell transplant is also called allogeneic bone marrow transplant

Donor; It could be a family member, acquaintance or a stranger. Cells used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be collected from different regions as follows:

From donor’s blood

Bone marrow within the donor’s hipbone

From donated umbilical cord blood

Before allogeneic stem cell transplantation is performed, high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy are given to destroy diseased cells and prepare the body for donor cells. An allogeneic stem cell transplant may be an option for people with a variety of diseases, including:

  • Acute leukemia
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Extreme anemia
  • Bone marrow failure syndromes
  • Chronic leukemia
  • Hemoglobinopathies
  • Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Immune deficiencies
  • Inborn errors of metabolism
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Plasma cell disorders
  • POEMS syndrome
  • Primary amyloidosis
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